Haeun Park, Seungho Yun, Jiyeon Lee, Byounghern Kim, Suyoung Park, Hui Sung Lee.(2023). Developing AngGo, a Shared Indoor Smart Mobility Vehicle with Driving Mode Switching Interaction Using ToF Distance Sensors. Journal of Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems, 29(5),426-434.
Many shared mobility services, such as electric scooters and bicycles, are available for outdoor use. However, finding a suitable shared mobility vehicle for indoor environments still presents a significant challenge. In this paper, we propose AngGo, a shared indoor smart mobility vehicle that can move conveniently in indoor spaces and communicate user intentions through interactions. AngGo is a chair-shaped mobility vehicle that has four modes: semi-autonomous driving mode, footplate manual driving mode, joystick manual driving mode, and standby mode. In the semi-autonomous mode, AngGo can search for potential users and navigate indoor spaces using six time-of-flight (ToF) distance sensors. Upon noticing that it was difficult for a user to board a moving AngGo, we developed a two-way mode switching interaction using ToF distance sensors: following and blocking. This allows AngGo to change its mode to the standby mode through certain movements of the user. In the standby mode, when the user boards the AngGo, it switches to the footplate manual driving mode. Thereafter, the user can change AngGo’s mode to the joystick manual mode by pressing a joystick button. We also conducted a user experiment to evaluate the workload of the two methods in terms of switching mode interaction. The results showed no significant difference in workloads. However, based on the interviews, users preferred the following methods to blocking method.